Technical papers

14. “SIMULATION-BASED ANALYSIS OF THE POTENTIALITY OF INCENTIVES FOR PROSUMER FLEXIBILITY”, SEERC 2016, 7-9 JUNE 2016, PORTOROZ (SLOVENIA)
In the last few decades, the diffusion of technological solutions in the green energy area has often been fostered and advanced by governments. Thanks to an incentive-driven policy, advancements in clean energy utilizing Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) such as solar panels and wind turbines, have spread all over the world and have become part of our everyday life.
In this paper, the fostering approach of government to support the dissemination of prosumer flexibility inside the grid is examined. Full inclusion of prosumers into the regulatory framework of the electricity sector can lead to important improvements regarding the network operating conditions. Prosumers can be dynamic actors in the emerging smart grid, and are characterized by their flexibility in responding to the grid contingencies. Demand Response (DR) is the most widely used technique for incorporating prosumer interaction with the electricity grid. Several additional categories of prosumers can be identified and, from the literature, the average rate of their potential flexibility can be determined. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of different categories of prosumers and give the means for quantifying their impact, in order to identify which integration techniques are appropriate for various system conditions to assure and maximize overall system flexibility. These conditions may involve regional or national contributions, such as incentives, tax reduction, and initiatives. We would like to demonstrate how central government policies may support the transition of traditional plants, buildings, campuses, etc. into active players of the modern electrical power system. Distribution System Operators (DSOs) are the key stakeholders for this transition and their collaboration with the different categories of prosumers is part of an advanced proposal. DSOs are able to communicate with the prosumers within their service areas, exchanging consumption and generation profiles, which are used by the active nodes of the smart grid to vary their power absorption or supply, respectively. In order to conduct this analysis, a simulation tool is used. Starting from a typical distribution network, a generic operational configuration is simulated and the entailed problems are registered and categorized. The same operations are performed by supposing that, in this network configuration, a certain share of prosumers are able to adopt different kinds of flexibility services, in order to study their effects on the power system. The resulting benefits of including smart consumers is recorded as well. Then, with a business analysis approach, the capital and operational costs of the different prosumer categories are considered. The objective is to determine how the possible players could be interested on support, incentive and foster flexibility, assuming different types of remuneration schemas both at DSO level, for the provision of ancillary and balancing services to the grid, and at regulatory level. The social and environmental impact deriving from this virtuous cycle can be determined as well.

Diego Arnone*, Francesco Saverio Nucci*, Giuseppe Paternò*, Alessandro Rossi*, Mariano Giuseppe Ippolito**, Eleonora Riva Sanseverino**, Giuseppe Tondi***, Fabio Cazzato*** and Sandra Elizabeth Jenkins****
* Engineering Ingegneria Informatica S.p.A., Palermo, Italy
** Università degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo, Italy
*** Enel Distribuzione S.p.A., Roma, Italy
**** Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, USA
13. “MULTI-OBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION OF ENERGY HUBS AT THE CROSSROAD OF THREE ENERGY DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS”, ENERGY 2016, JUNE 2016, LISBON, PORTUGAL.
This paper provides a multi-objective optimization framework aimed at the management of a multi-carrier energy system involving both electricity and hydrogen. Using the concept of the multi-carrier hub, the proposed system has been modelled in order to define completely every energy flow inside the plant. After that, a heuristic multi-objective optimization algorithm, the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II, has been implemented for the energy management of the plant, taking into account simultaneously three different objective functions related to economic and technical goals. This optimization process provides the set point defining the working configuration of the plant for a daylong time horizon. The communication framework between the energy management system, the real plant and the monitoring tool has been developed too, using the OPC protocol for the data exchange. This has been presented along with the Decision support System provided by the optimizer and the Human Machine Interface of the SCADA monitoring the plant. All the presented applications are going to be deployed on a real plant demonstrator.

Diego Arnone*, Massimo Bertoncini*, Giuseppe Paternò*, Alessandro Rossi*, Mariano Giuseppe Ippolito** and Eleonora Riva Sanseverino**
* Engineering Ingegneria Informatica S.p.A., Palermo, Italy
** Università degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo, Italy
12. “SMART MULTI-CARRIER ENERGY SYSTEM: OPTIMISED ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND INVESTMENT ANALYSIS”, ENERGYCON 2016, APRIL 2016, LEUVEN, BELGIUM
This paper proposes an optimised Energy Management System for a multi-carrier hub, which integrates two energy distribution networks, for hydrogen and electricity. The economic sustainability of a real-life instantiation of such a system has been analysed as well. The Energy Management System has been developed by means of a multi-objective optimisation algorithm, the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II, implemented using MATLAB®. The achieved results consist in a series of set-points defining the working conditions of the plant for a chosen time horizon. Data provided by this process also show the effectiveness of the adopted optimisation approach. The financial analysis is performed taking into account costs and revenues of a real demonstration plant. These cash flows have been evaluated by means of Net Present Value index. The proposed analysis shows a possible solution that is profitable for stakeholders and guarantees a short Pay Back Time.

Diego Arnone*, Massimo Bertoncini*, Giuseppe Paternò*, Alessandro Rossi*, Mariano Giuseppe Ippolito** and Eleonora Riva Sanseverino**
* Engineering Ingegneria Informatica S.p.A., Palermo, Italy
** Università degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo, Italy
11. A. DÍAZ DE ARCAYA, J.A. ALZOLA, A. GONZÁLEZ-GONZÁLEZ & G. LÁZARO FROM TECNALIA, “INGRID PROJECT: HIGH‐CAPACITY HYDROGEN‐BASED GREEN‐ENERGY STORAGE SOLUTIONS FOR GRID BALANCING”, IRES 2016, MARCH 2016, DÜSSELDORF, GERMANY
INGRID introduces and demonstrates the usage of safe, high-density solid-state hydrogen storage as an effective energy vector to provide services to electricity systems operators for grid balancing purposes.
To reach its ambitions objective, a new hydrogen storage system based on magnesium hydride is proposed. This technology provides significant advantages such as constant pressure operation and high energy storage density.
A second key issue is the design and development of advanced smart grid tools (Simulation tools, Energy Management System, ICT platform) able to simulate, manage, monitor and dispatch energy according to the power needs of the grid, allowing thus a suitable balance between variable energy supply and demand. The hybrid nature of the facility (electricity, gas) poses a challenge for the overall optimization.
The ultimate objective is to perform a demonstrative scaled-down test where the hydrogen solid-state storage technology is integrated:
•	in an open loop, coupled with water electrolysers (1.152 kW), where hydrogen (300 kg) can be sold and transported for external use.
•	in a closed loop (25 kg), coupled with water electrolysers (1.152 kW) and fuel cell systems (120 kW) to complete a regenerative loop to electricity in order to be dispensed to off the grid utilities as an urban mobility systems. An Electric Vehicle Recharge Station (EVRS) is also included in the system.
Conventional energy storage systems are entirely controllable by the DSO, whereas the INGRID system is intended to collaborate with the DSO according to different strategies such as income maximization, emissions minimization, compliance with DSO profile or a combination of them.
Available HERE
10. A. DÍAZ DE ARCAYA, A. GONZÁLEZ-GONZÁLEZ, J.A. ALZOLA AND V. SÁNCHEZ, “COOPERATIVE SIMULATION TOOL WITH THE ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR THE STORAGE OF ELECTRICITY SURPLUS THROUGH HYDROGEN”, 6TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON “EXPERIMENTS/PROCESS/SYSTEM MODELLING/SIMULATION/OPTIMIZATION”, JULY 2015, ATHENS, GREECE.
The INGRID project aims at demonstrating the effective usage of safe, high-density, solid-state hydrogen storage systems for power supply and demand balancing within active power distribution grids with high penetration of intermittent Distributed Generation (Renewable Energy Sources in particular). The INGRID simulator is divided in two main blocks: the first one represents the Energy Management System, the second one includes the Green Energy Storage System (water electrolyzer, hydrogen solid-storage systems and fuel cell)created to simulate the plant. This paper describes the modules of INGRID simulator and the transient responses of the system for a virtual energy management system according to the power prediction of renewable energysources, hydrogen demand and the power demand of electric vehicles. Available[Here]
9. “A MATRIX MODEL FOR AN ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM BASED ON MULTI-CARRIER ENERGY HUB APPROACH”, IARIA ENERGY 2015, INFOSYS 2015, ROME (ITALY), MAY 2015.
The INGRID FP7 European co-funded project studies several methodologies concerning hydrogen production and storage, aiming to provide services to electricity system operators for suitably balancing electrical supply and demand. In such a context, the problem of integrating different carriers into a single multi-hub optimiser represents a challenging topic for the research. This paper depicts the Energy Management System (EMS) of the plant which will be developed and built as a prototype of the INGRID system. The approach followed for the EMS design and development takes the cue from the matrix model presented in the rest of the paper, as well as the general optimisation problem formulation and the algorithm selected for its solution. 

Diego Arnone*, Massimo Bertoncini*, Giuseppe Paternò*, Alessandro Rossi*, Eleonora Riva Sanseverino**, Gaetano Zizzo** and Sandra Elizabeth Jenkins***
* Engineering Ingegneria Informatica S.p.A., Palermo, Italy
** Università degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo, Italy
*** Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, USA
8. “A NOVEL HEURISTICS-BASED ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR A MULTI-CARRIER HUB ENRICHED WITH SOLID HYDROGEN STORAGE”, ACM E-ENERGY 2014, JUNE 2014, CAMBRIDGE, UNITED KINGDOM.
In this paper, an efficient optimization algorithm for the energy management of a grid-connected energy hub plant is proposed. The Simulated Annealing algorithm is adopted for the solution of the energy management problem aiming at the profit maximization for the owner of the energy hub plant. The use of a heuristic algorithm was required by the non-linearity of the efficiencies of each component in the energy transformation stages. The proposed heuristics is applied to a large energy hub, corresponding to the simulation of the test-bed that is being designed and developed inside the ongoing INGRID European research project. 

Rosario Proietto*, Diego Arnone**, Massimo Bertoncini**, Alessandro Rossi**, Diego La Cascia***, Rosario Miceli*** and Eleonora Riva Sanseverino***
* Onyx Technology s.r.l., Roma, Italy
** Engineering Ingegneria Informatica S.p.A., Palermo, Italy
*** Università degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo, Italy
7. “THE INGRID PROJECT: OPTIMIZED STORAGE FOR COOPERATIVE SERVICES TO POWER DISTRIBUTORS THROUGH ICT-BASED ENERGY MANAGEMENT”, CIRED WORKSHOP 2014, JUNE 2014, ROMA, ITALY.
This paper gives an overview of an innovative storage service concept and the architecture of its concretization in a field demonstrator actually in progress. Aim of the system is to fulfil operational flexibility requirements and support electricity grid, to accommodate large shares of fluctuating renewable energy sources. The demonstrator will be deployed in Italy (Puglia) to prove the technical and business viability of combining solid-state high-density Hydrogen storage systems with advanced ICT solutions for balancing power supply and demand in the context of a Smart Grid paradigm.
The paper proposes a novel way to deal with the distribution network, by means of an ICT-based Energy Management System, which is being designed and developed for the INGRID FP7 R&D European Project.

Diego Arnone*, Massimo Bertoncini*, Alessandro Rossi*, Diana Moneta**, Rosario Proietto*** and Giuseppe Tondi****
* Engineering Ingegneria Informatica S.p.A., Palermo, Italy
** Ricerca Sistema Energetico S.p.A., Milan, Italy
*** Onyx Technology s.r.l., Roma, Italy
**** Enel Distribuzione S.p.A., Roma, Italy
6. “MIXED HEURISTIC-NON LINEAR OPTIMIZATION OF ENERGY MANAGEMENT FOR HYDROGEN STORAGE-BASED MULTI CARRIER HUBS”, IEEE ENERGYCON 2014, MAY 2014, DUBROVNIK, CROATIA.
In this paper, an heuristic and non-linear programming based algorithm to optimally operate an energy hub plant is proposed. The energy hub plant reported in this work is the test system for the European INGRID research project.
The Energy Management System defines the optimal energy flows dispatch in order to obtain the energy balance and the maximum profit for the owner of the plant. The problem is highly constrained and non-linear, for this reason the methodology cannot rely on Linear Programming (LP) methods. The Energy Management System manages two energy carriers, electricity and hydrogen, interfacing three distribution networks: the electricity, the hydrogen and the methane networks.
Simulations show that the buffer function of the system is as more intense as greater the efficiency of the conversion systems is, as compared to the prices variations along the day. Although heuristic search methods are well suited for the solution of highly constrained non-linear problems, as the one faced here, the applications carried out over the INGRID project test-bed show that, for this problem, improved solutions can be found applying a non-linear programming method named the Generalised Reduced Gradient (GRG), to refine the solutions outputted by heuristic algorithms, such as Simulated Annealing or Tabu Search.

Rosario Proietto*, Diego Arnone**, Massimo Bertoncini**, Alessandro Rossi**, Diego La Cascia***, Rosario Miceli***, Eleonora Riva Sanseverino*** and Gaetano Zizzo***
* Onyx Technology s.r.l., Roma, Italy
** Engineering Ingegneria Informatica S.p.A., Palermo, Italy
*** Università degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo, Italy
5. “ENERGY MANAGEMENT IN A SMART GRID-INTEGRATED HYDROGEN-BASED STORAGE”, IARIA ENERGY 2014, APRIL 2014, CHAMONIX, FRANCE.
The integration of plants for the distributed production of electric energy from renewable (especially solar and wind) sources into the electric grid has become an increasingly complex task over the last years because the amount of “green” energy nowadays injected into the grid is sometimes comparable to the energy supplied by traditional thermal plants. This introduces a strong variability, a partial unpredictability and a significant dependency from the location, three of the main features that characterize the energy produced by photovoltaic plants and wind turbines. This paper introduces a high level description of an innovative system that integrates high-capacity hydrogen-based storage into the grid with the aim of contributing to the grid balancing and to the improvement of the power quality. A concrete demonstrator is being designed and will be connected to a properly selected primary substation where most of the power lines connected to the medium voltage bus bar are active because they are connected to many photovoltaic plants and wind turbines.

Diego Arnone*, Massimo Bertoncini*, Alessandro Rossi*, Diana Moneta**, Rosario Proietto***, Giuseppe Tondi**** and Carlos García-Santiago*****
* Engineering Ingegneria Informatica S.p.A., Palermo, Italy
** Ricerca Sistema Energetico S.p.A., Milan, Italy
*** Onyx Technology s.r.l., Roma, Italy
**** Enel Distribuzione S.p.A., Roma, Italy
***** Tecnalia Research & Innovation, Vitoria, Spain
4. “SISTEMA DI GESTIONE ENERGETICO INNOVATIVO CON STOCCAGGIO A IDROGENO PER L’INTEGRAZIONE DI FONTI RINNOVABILI A SUPPORTO DEL BILANCIAMENTO DELLA RETE”, IEEE AEIT 2013, OCTOBER 2013, PALERMO, ITALY.
La diffusione della Generazione Distribuita (GD), in particolare da fonte rinnovabile non programmabile, sta ponendo diverse criticità all’esercizio in sicurezza della rete elettrica di distribuzione. Il progetto europeo INGRID si propone di verificare in campo il possibile contributo di sistemi avanzati al bilanciamento della rete con forte presenza di GD. Il sistema, costituito da un elettrolizzatore, un impianto di stoccaggio di idrogeno allo stato solido ad alta capacità, una cella a combustibile e una stazione di ricarica di veicoli elettrici per la mobilità urbana, si comporta essenzialmente sia come carico che come generatore, entrambi modulabili, che dietro indicazione dell’operatore della rete di distribuzione, si incaricano di bilanciare i flussi di potenza al fine di conseguire il profilo richiesto. Accanto ai servizi ancillari offerti alla rete, la gestione del sistema INGRID include l'ottimizzazione della produzione di idrogeno e la ricarica dei veicoli elettrici. Un’istanza del sistema, un dimostratore, sarà connessa ad una rete caratterizzata da forte presenza di generazione distribuita al fine di valutarne in campo le prestazioni.

Diego Arnone*, Massimo Bertoncini*, Alessandro Rossi* and Diana Moneta**
* Engineering Ingegneria Informatica S.p.A., Palermo, Italy
** Ricerca Sistema Energetico S.p.A., Milan, Italy
3. “AN ICT-BASED ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM TO INTEGRATE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND STORAGE FOR GRID BALANCING”, ACM E-ENERGY 2013, MAY 2013, BERKELEY CA, UNITED STATES.
Among the different renewable sources the “green” energy coming from wind or solar farms is often injected into the grid when it is not expected or there is no demand. The integration of photovoltaic and wind energy into the grid entails the need to provide proper solutions to a wide range of problems not entirely new to the network but still more critical. At the very heart of the INGRID European project, an ICT-based Energy Management System is being designed as the core of a self-adaptive & autonomic system in charge of dispatching the green energy among the smart grid, a hydrogen-based green-energy storage and an innovative urban mobility system.

Diego Arnone*, Massimo Bertoncini*, Alessandro Rossi*, Fabrizio D’Errico**, Carlos García-Santiago***, Diana Moneta**** and Cristiano D’Orinzi*****
* Engineering Ingegneria Informatica S.p.A., Palermo, Italy
** Mc Phy Energy, La Motte-Fanjas, France
*** Tecnalia Research & Innovation, Vitoria, Spain
**** Ricerca Sistema Energetico S.p.A., Milan, Italy
***** Enel Distribuzione S.p.A., Roma, Italy
2. D'ERRICO, F., SCRENCI, A. AND ROMEO, M. (2013) A GREEN URBAN MOBILITY SYSTEM SOLUTION FROM THE EU INGRID PROJECT, IN REWAS 2013: ENABLING MATERIALS RESOURCE SUSTAINABILITY (EDS A. KVITHYLD, C. MESKERS, R. KIRCHAIN, G. KRUMDICK, B. MISHRA, M. REUTER, C. WANG, M. SCHLESINGER, G. GAUSTAD, D. LADOS AND J. SPANGENBERGER), JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC., HOBOKEN, NJ, USA. DOI: 10.1002/9781118679401.CH20
With a mandate to reach 20/20/20 targets, new strategies are now focusing on the increased use of electricity to power transportation. Particularly in major urban areas of the EU, capillary use of electric vehicles are being encouraged, however, as these vehicles will be powered by the grid, there is always the risk that load peaks will occur. This work is just one of several being developed as part of the 23.9 MLN Euros INGRID European project started in July 2012, which combines solid-state high-density hydrogen storage systems with advanced ICT technologies for distribution grids. One possible solution which has been designed, is an off-grid utility to store renewable electricity captured from wind/solar sources and a re-charging point for full battery electric cars. This work shows the preliminary financial assessment of two business models for the Park-and-Recharge concept to promote green e-mobility as a more convenient and economical means of by-car transport. Available[Here]
1. D'ERRICO, F. AND SCRENCI, A. (2012) HIGH-CAPACITY HYDROGEN-BASED GREEN-ENERGY STORAGE SOLUTIONS FOR THE GRID BALANCING, IN MAGNESIUM TECHNOLOGY 2012 (EDS S.N. MATHAUDHU, W.H. SILLEKENS, N.R. NEELAMEGGHAM AND N. HORT), JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC., HOBOKEN, NJ, USA. DOI: 10.1002/9781118359228.CH88 AWARDED AS “MAGNESIUM TECHNOLOGY BEST PAPER - APPLICATION AWARD 2012”[Link].
One of the current main challenges in green-power storage and smart grids is the lack of effective solutions for accommodating the unbalance between renewable energy sources, that offer intermittent electricity supply, and a variable electricity demand. Energy management systems have to be foreseen for the near future, while they stillrepresent a major challenge. Integrating intermittent renewable energy sources, by safe and cost-effective energy storage systems based on solid state hydrogen is todayachievable thanks to recently some technology breakthroughs.Optimized solid storage method made of magnesium-based hydrides guarantees a very rapid absorption and desorption kinetics. Coupled with electrolyzer technology, high-capacity storage of green-hydrogen is therefore practicable. Besides these aspects, magnesium has beenemerging as environmentally friend energy storage method to sustain integration, monitoring and control of large quantity of GWh from high capacity renewable generation in the EU. Available[Here]

INGRID - High-capacity hydrogen-based green-energy storage solutions for grid balancing
Work partially supported by European Community under the ENERGY programme of the 7th FP for RTD - project INGRID, contract 296012. The Author is solely responsible for the content of this paper. It does not represent the opinion of the European Community, and the European Community is not responsible for any use that might be made of data appearing therein.




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